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  • 中國汽研汽車風洞有何神奇之處
    2019年06月29日 08:40 來源:重慶日報

    6月28日,中國汽研的汽車風洞落成。(受訪者供圖)

      6月28日,由中國汽車工程研究院股份有限公司(以下簡稱“中國汽研”)建設的汽車風洞(汽車環境風洞、汽車空氣動力學-聲學風洞)在兩江新區亮相。

      汽車風洞有哪些亮眼的科技元素?重慶日報記者現場打探,為你開啟風洞中的“科幻之旅”。

      能制造“風霜雨雪”的風洞

      在汽車環境風洞中,車輛的熱力學測試不用再“看老天爺的臉色”,一年12個月都可以充分利用模擬的環境對整車開發進行調試,從而更好地控制研發成本和時間。

      如何創造各種各樣的天氣條件滿足車輛測試需要呢?

      重慶日報記者在現場了解到,中國汽研汽車環境風洞的溫度模擬范圍可達-40℃—60℃。為實現低溫,風洞中采用二次制冷系統,讓載冷劑通過盤管在風洞流道中進行熱交換;而高溫的實現,則是通過鍋爐加熱獲取熱量,盡量在節約能源的同時,精準控制溫度。

      為了在風洞中實現陽光模擬,中國汽研汽車環境風洞測試段頂部配置了一套全光譜的陽光模擬系統,每個燈源都有獨立的電源和控制系統,以實現光照的精準控制;同時,在每個獨立燈源上集成有網狀擋板和遮光擋板,用于模擬車輛在烏云條件下低照射強度環境和通過隧道時的無照射環境。

      這個風洞還能“下雨”。為了在風洞中實現降雨模擬,中國汽研汽車環境風洞的噴口安裝了噴槍,根據不同雨量大小設定,噴槍會噴出相應大小的雨滴,雨滴隨噴口氣流吹向測試車輛從而形成降雨,小雨、中雨、暴雨等不同級別的真實降雨都可模擬。

      “下雪”也是它的技能之一。風洞的噴口安置了噴槍,噴槍能根據所需雪量的大小噴出夾帶水滴的高壓氣體,在風洞流道內溫度達到-10℃以下時凝結成冰粒,從而在試驗車輛前方形成降雪,雪量大小、降雪時間都可自由控制。

      “汽車環境風洞就是一個濃縮的四季,可模擬各種實際氣候環境,如降雨、降雪、高溫、低溫、日照、結冰等,可用于汽車整車發動機熱管理、空調系統、汽車水管理等汽車熱力學開發任務。整車及零部件都可以在這里得到檢驗,過去這類試驗只能選擇在吐魯番、漠河等滿足特殊氣候環境要求的地域進行,相當耗費時間成本和經濟成本;而通過風洞,此類試驗不僅可大大節約研發時間和經濟成本,數據也更加準確。”中國汽研風洞相關工程負責人說。

      “人造颶風”可達250公里/小時

      隨著車速的提高,氣動噪聲已經成為高速車輛行駛中的主要噪聲源,成為影響汽車駕乘舒適性和安全性的重要因素。

      為此,中國汽研氣動-聲學風洞將為車輛解決“風噪”問題。

      “打個形象的比喻,氣動-聲學風洞就是讓車輛站上‘跑步機’,研究人員通過風洞試驗,獲得包括風阻系數、風噪性能、行駛穩定性、側風響應、車內外噪聲等數據。”中國汽研風洞相關工程負責人介紹,尤其是要采集風噪數據,對風洞的背景噪聲要求非常高,要求洞內“絕對安靜”,而中國汽研氣動-聲學風洞經過風機聲學優化、駐室壁聲學消聲處理等系列處理后,已經成為“世界上最安靜的風洞之一”。中國汽研風洞相關工程負責人介紹。

      其實,風洞就是根據運動的相似性原理,將汽車固定在地面上,通過高速氣流流經汽車表面,模擬汽車實際路面行駛狀態下的氣動特性的試驗設備。作為中國汽研汽車風洞的動力源,風機系統是整個風洞的“幕后英雄”,也是風洞先進性的體現。

      中國汽研氣動-聲學風洞的風機是具有世界一流水平的軸流式風機系統,具備極高的控制精度和效率,其功率為4000千瓦左右,最高風速可達250公里/小時,可為汽車風洞試驗提供最佳的模擬環境。

      當電源接通后,葉片旋轉,空氣從風扇的背后被葉片產生的負壓吸引,通過葉片吹向風扇的正前方,在風扇前面形成“人造風”。風機轉速相同時,葉片直徑越大,風量就越大,中國汽研的風機系統采用了18片碳纖維葉片,直徑達9米,運轉起來時,無異于在室內制造了一場“人造颶風”。

      強強聯手,多個品牌加入“風洞聯盟”

      “中國中西部首座汽車風洞的落成,為我國汽車風洞走向國際一流水平邁出了堅實的一步。”談及風洞為何落地重慶時,中國汽研相關負責人表示,近年來重慶汽車工業發展迅速,汽車產業集群進一步擴大,這是吸引中國汽研汽車風洞項目落地的關鍵原因。

      值得一提的是,重慶的眾多車企,對中國汽研汽車風洞項目的建設也充滿期待。據了解,目前長安汽車、泛亞汽車、東南汽車、江鈴汽車、江淮汽車等10家車企已為此成立“風洞聯盟”,將未來的諸多研發項目落地至此。

      為了配合兩大汽車風洞的運行,中國汽研還建立了1200核高性能仿真計算平臺,提供包括汽車空氣動力學、氣動噪聲、發動機冷卻、空調性能、零部件熱保護、乘員舒適性、除霜除霧、燃油加注、整車涉水、齒輪潤滑、發動機散熱系統匹配等汽車空氣動力學、聲學和熱力學領域的CFD仿真分析和優化技術服務。

      虛擬風洞和汽車空氣動力學數據庫兩大服務平臺的探索與構建,還將為國內外企業提供虛擬風洞仿真分析,CFD分析與風洞試驗對標,汽車關鍵氣動以及聲學特性的查詢、分析和對標等技術服務。

      “以這座汽車風洞為契機,我們將致力于成為國際一流、國內領先的汽車空氣動力學、氣動聲學和熱力學第三方技術服務平臺和先進技術研究機構,支撐和引領相關技術的發展。”中國汽研相關負責人說。(首席記者 陳鈞 記者 仇崢 實習生 彭瑾)

    -
    【編輯:陳茂霖】
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