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  • 續寫天書曲譜 傳承小河鑼鼓國家級非遺
    2019年07月05日 15:39 來源:重慶晚報

      7月2日,渝北區大灣鎮,羅范平拎起大鑼要開敲。大鑼不大,跟餐桌上常見的湯盆差不多,青銅鑄就,鑼心因長年敲擊跟四周的青輝色界限分明。當渾厚悅耳聲響從鑼心發出,鮮有人知道,大鑼的曲牌來自400多年前的天書曲譜。

      能被稱為天書曲譜,是因由O、●、◎、X、◎、⊙等象形符號譜成,即使音樂人看了也說不出個所以然。羅范平今年79歲,當地村民,有據可考的小河鑼鼓第七代傳人。

      小河鑼鼓來頭不小——國家級非物質文化遺產項目,天書曲譜是它的魂。然而,20多年前,天書曲譜在老羅眼前失蹤,留下無盡遺憾。現在,他盡力縮小這種遺憾,讓傳承少些障礙。其實,小河鑼鼓似磁石,除了老羅,有一群人也在為它的傳承努力。

      1

      當天上午,大灣鎮文化服務中心。羅范平口述小河鑼鼓曲牌《一四七》,村民羅孝群替他整理。羅孝群把每個符號畫得力透紙背,他是小河鑼鼓團隊成員之一。

      從踏進服務中心那刻起,老羅的手就不自覺得抖動。他站桌邊,看著一個接一個的象形符號在紙上排隊降生,手抖動的頻率更甚。不知情的人認為,他是跟著曲牌不自覺做敲鑼動作,熟悉的曉得,手抖是他去年患腦梗塞后落下的后遺癥。

      “也許有一天我的手再也不抖了,我希望那天到來前,失蹤的天書曲譜已經都整理出來了。”老羅說這話時,手恰巧放在桌面,抖動帶來輕輕敲擊,似在為他的想法叫好。

      文化服務中心主任劉洪說,早在2007年,小河鑼鼓就被評為市級非物質遺產項目,2011年,它躋身第三批國家級“非遺”項目,填補了渝北區國家級非物質文化遺產的空白。她還說,區非物質文化遺產保護中心調查表明,小河鑼鼓始于400多年前的明朝末年,在老羅屬有據可考的第7代傳人之前,具體傳承人等信息仍處進一步深挖中。按老羅回憶整理出來的部分天書曲譜經專家多方考證,其原貌特征古風猶存。

      老羅從來沒想到過,老祖宗謀生的手藝傳到他這代人會成為國家級非物質文化遺產。

      “記了100多文曲牌,每個符號都是老祖宗的心血呀!它記錄的每個符號代表啥?只有我們傳人才曉得。可惜喲,20多年前那次滑坡把我家房子沖垮,那本曲譜再沒找到。我,我,我當時要是在房子搖的時候沖進去找,它也許能保住。”整理間隙,老羅說這話,牙齒不住抖動,眼睛變得濕潤起來,手不自律地抖得更厲害。

      “莫激動,你看我這個符號畫得正不正確?”羅孝群見狀忙安慰老羅,他擔心老羅自責帶來情緒波動,誘發腦梗塞復發,連忙雙唇啟動從嘴里發出這樣的聲音,咚,咚咚,弄,弄,弄不耳,隆,咚,弄,弄不弄……聲調來自他筆下的象形符號。

      老羅懂得聲音代指的是鑼、鈸、鼓等樂器,思緒跟著樂器游走,表情自然逐漸緩和下來。

      2

      畫在紙上的O、●、◎、X、◎、⊙等象形符號到底指代什么?老羅逐一指著,如數家珍講解,那眼神就像給旁人介紹自己的孩子。O表示敲鑼邊、●表示敲擊鼓心、◎表示敲擊鼓邊、X表示用鈸對擊、◎表示敲擊鼓邊、⊙表示敲鑼心。值得一提的是,還有個類似圓柱體的符號(電腦輸入法特殊符號也找不出來)。末了,羅孝群拎起大鑼,示范為例O和⊙的操作手法,鑼聲繞梁不散。

      小河鑼鼓團隊共7人,有傳承人殊榮的共3人。老羅是小河鑼鼓市級傳承人,羅孝群和冉崇榮是區級傳承人。冉崇榮跟羅孝群不同的是,曾在學校當過音樂老師,除能看懂天書曲譜的象形符號外,還會對曲牌中對應鎖吶的象形符號代換成簡譜。至于鑼、鈸樂器等對應的象形符號能否用簡譜代換?能的話,如何代換?老羅三人常聚在一起交流。

      在大灣鎮,不少人都能講出小河鑼鼓的起源,講得透徹的卻很少。

      老羅記憶中,小河鑼鼓得名跟鎮上兩條叫不出名的小河有關,祖輩說法是,明朝末年(約400年前),有戶蔣姓大戶在小河附近建房修街,開街時,蔣家請來5支吹打樂班子慶賀10多天,街漸成市,凡響起鑼鼓聲就被民間統稱小河鑼鼓。民國時,小河鑼鼓迎來發展高潮,羅家的吹打樂班子變得名聲在外,吹打技法除口口相傳外,還有一本天書曲譜悄悄在族人中相傳。有這本曲譜加持,羅家的小河鑼鼓在同行中異軍突起。

      曲譜傳到老羅手里時,他父親已無法講清創作第一人是誰?老羅卻記得,曲譜是古籍,記錄著100多文曲牌。20多年前,它在羅家垮房后失蹤,老羅講,那時起,他不僅有對祖先的愧疚,更多是怕曲譜失傳的危機。他遵祖訓,先傳內,迫不得已才傳外。迄今,他的3個兒子學會了識天書曲譜及小河鑼鼓敲打技法,1個孫子學會了大鑼的敲打方法;冉崇榮和羅孝群成為他傳外的最佳人選。

      當然,團隊的另外4人也傳。2日,團隊往大灣鎮體育場訓練前,老羅被一位吳姓成員叫住“說理”。吳說,他被安排到鎮上的學校去給學生上了兩堂小河鑼鼓課,他對傳承有一些不同的看法。老羅低頭張嘴,說不起話。對方又說,訓練是“你們三個傳承人的事”……屋子里的氣氛有些僵。

      半小時后,團隊在體育館場開始訓練,吳姓成員說了幾次不跟老羅等三個傳承人一起吹打。老羅仍像先前那樣不語,待吹打即將進行時,他拎鑼靠過去。或許是敲打聲起效,所有成員逐漸融為了一體。

      隔閡消除了嗎?老羅沒正面答復,講,訓練其實就是干活,磕磕絆絆也正常,個別人偶爾發點小脾氣也沒啥。可以聽得出,他的話有些底氣不足。然而,提到傳承話題時,他眼里滿是堅毅。

      3

      茍中明是渝北區文化館原文藝部主任,也是小河鑼鼓“非遺”搶救性發掘人之一。聊起天書曲譜,他解讀,經大量走訪調查,天書曲譜的象形符號有很強地域性,每個符號樸素直觀的特征明顯。但是,其他吹打樂班子是讀不懂它的,就這一點講,曲譜自帶保密性。

      來自渝北區文化遺產保護中心的消息表明,小河鑼鼓的歷史可追溯到400多年前,傳承形式是祖輩相傳,天書曲譜中的“啷當調”等獨特曲牌已被解碼。在發掘小河鑼鼓的國家級“非遺”深度方面,已發掘出的曲牌已達300多文,其中一些在保障原汁原味的基礎上經精心編排后參加展演。6月21日起,在西旅博覽會上,小河鑼鼓展演的是婚俗,吹打聲中,新娘新郎媒婆等角色逐一上場,贏得滿堂喝彩。小河鑼鼓太受歡迎,展演持續3天。

      在傳承廣度方面,現在,該中心已經組建了由學生、教師及有意愿社會人員組成的3支隊伍,每支隊伍分2個組,每組6-8人。除此之外,小河鑼鼓的傳承觸角伸得更廣,一本集合了小河鑼鼓起源、曲牌、發掘等內容的書正處校對階段,預計今年內將面世,屆時,不少有意從事小河鑼鼓吹打的不特定人群體也能感受國家級“非遺”的魅力。

      4

      如果說天書曲譜是小河鑼鼓的魂,那么,小河鑼鼓則是大灣鎮傳統文化的精氣神。程前是大灣鎮黨委書記,他介紹,在不少村民眼里,小河鑼鼓是大家的鄉愁,隔段時間沒聽到吹打聲,就覺得心里空蕩蕩的。

      近幾年,大灣鎮政府在深入挖掘小河鑼鼓本土文化內涵,推進非物質文化保護和利用方面可謂是竭盡所能。比如,請專家學者對天書曲譜進行破譯編著,目前,一本書名為小河鑼鼓基礎教程的書,已進入當地的三所中小學課堂,每周五,老羅等小河鑼鼓團隊成員會去給孩子們上學習小河鑼鼓的興趣課;以大灣鎮為圓心,走訪和調查了渝北其他鄉鎮街,甚至緊鄰的四川鄰水等地,收集到演奏的小河鑼鼓曲牌280余文,還獲得一本清光緒年間流傳下來的手抄本;依托當地文旅發展契機,舉辦大灣鎮文化藝術節等群眾文化活動,小河鑼鼓必是壓軸節目。

      放眼望去,鎮政府對面有一幢樓即將完工,它是鎮文化服務中心的新辦公場所兼群眾文化主要陣地。據了解,小河鑼鼓博物館將設在樓內,開館后不僅有一些吹打樂器等老物件展示,還會不定期進行小河鑼鼓展演。另外,大灣鎮的廣場有可能更名為小河鑼鼓廣場。(來源:重慶晚報)

    -
    【編輯:鐘欣】
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